“In the 21st century, there is a real possibility of creating biological castes, with real biological differences between rich and poor,” said Harari. “The end result could be speciation. We’re used to being the only human species around, but there is no law of nature that says there can only be one species of human. With this kind of upgrading treatment we could have, in the not too distant future, more than one human species on Earth again.”
Anders Sandberg, a researcher at the Future of Humanity Institute at the
Oxford Martin School, said that while technology might drive an evolutionary split in humankind, the divide would not separate rich and poor.